|3 Months Ended|
Mar. 31, 2018
10. REVENUE RECOGNITION
We generate substantially all of our revenues through sales in the open market and long‑term supply agreements. We recognize revenue when control of the promised goods is transferred to our customers. Control of goods usually passes to the customer at the time shipment is made. Revenue is measured as the amount that reflects the consideration that we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods. Sales, value add, and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. Incidental items that are immaterial in the context of the contract are recognized as expense. We have elected to account for all shipping and handling activities as fulfillment costs. We have also elected to expense commissions when incurred as the amortization period of the commission asset that we would have otherwise recognized is less than one year.
The following table disaggregates our revenue by major source for the three months ended March 31, 2018 (dollars in millions):
Substantially all of our revenue is generated through product sales in which revenue is recognized at a point in time. At contract inception, we assess the goods and services, if any, promised in our contracts and identify a performance obligation for each promise to transfer to the customer a good or service that is distinct. In substantially all cases, a contract has a single performance obligation to deliver a promised good to the customer. Revenue is recognized when control of the product is transferred to the customer (i.e., when our performance obligation is satisfied), which typically occurs at shipment. Further, in determining whether control has transferred, we consider if there is a present right to payment and legal title, along with risks and rewards of ownership having transferred to the customer.
The amount of consideration we receive and revenue we recognize is based upon the terms stated in the sales contract, which may contain variable consideration such as discounts or rebates. We allocate the transaction price to each distinct product based on their relative standalone selling price. The product price as specified on the purchase order or in the sales contract is considered the standalone selling price as it is an observable input that depicts the price as if sold to a similar customer in similar circumstances. In order to estimate the applicable variable consideration, we use historical and current trend information to estimate the amount of discounts or rebates to which customers are likely to be entitled. Historically, actual discount or rebate adjustments relative to those estimated and included when determining the transaction price have not materially differed. Payment terms vary by business but are generally less than one year. As our standard payment terms are less than one year, we have elected to not assess whether a contract has a significant financing component. In the normal course of business, we do not accept product returns unless the item is defective as manufactured. We establish provisions for estimated returns based on an analysis of historical experience.
The entire disclosure of revenue from contract with customer to transfer good or service and to transfer nonfinancial asset. Includes, but is not limited to, disaggregation of revenue, credit loss recognized from contract with customer, judgment and change in judgment related to contract with customer, and asset recognized from cost incurred to obtain or fulfill contract with customer. Excludes insurance and lease contracts.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef