SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Asset Retirement Obligations
We accrue for asset retirement obligations, which consist primarily of landfill capping, closure and post‑closure costs, asbestos abatement costs, demolition and removal costs and leasehold remediation costs, in the period in which the obligations are incurred. Asset retirement obligations are accrued at estimated fair value. When the liability is initially recorded, we capitalize the cost by increasing the carrying amount of the related long‑lived asset. Over time, the liability is accreted to its estimated settlement value and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the useful life of the related asset. Upon settlement of the liability, we will recognize a gain or loss for any difference between the settlement amount and the liability recorded. Asset retirement obligations were $9 million and $8 million at December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively.
Carrying Value of Long‑Lived Assets
We review long‑lived assets and all amortizable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability is based upon current and anticipated undiscounted cash flows, and we recognize an impairment when such estimated cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset. Measurement of the amount of impairment, if any, is based upon the difference between carrying value and fair value. Fair value is generally estimated by discounting estimated future cash flows using a discount rate commensurate with the risks involved or selling price of assets held for sale. See “Note 11. Restructuring, Impairment and Plant Closing Costs.”
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider cash in checking accounts and cash in short‑term highly liquid investments with remaining maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase, to be cash and cash equivalents. Cash flows from financing activities from discontinued operations are not presented separately in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
Cost of Goods Sold
We classify the costs of manufacturing and distributing our products as cost of goods sold. Manufacturing costs include variable costs, primarily raw materials and energy, and fixed expenses directly associated with production. Manufacturing costs also include, among other things, plant site operating costs and overhead (including depreciation), production planning and logistics costs, repair and maintenance costs, plant site purchasing costs, and engineering and technical support costs. Distribution, freight and warehousing costs are also included in cost of goods sold.
Derivatives and Hedging Activities
All derivatives, whether designated in hedging relationships or not, are recorded on our balance sheet at fair value. If the derivative is designated as a fair value hedge, the changes in the fair value of the derivative and the hedged items are recognized in earnings. If the derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, changes in the fair value of the derivative are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss, to the extent effective, and will be recognized in the income statement when the hedged item affects earnings. Changes in the fair value of the hedge in the net investment of certain international operations are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss), to the extent effective. The effectiveness of a cash flow hedging relationship is established at the inception of the hedge, and after inception we perform effectiveness assessments at least every three months. A derivative designated as a cash flow hedge is determined to be effective if the change in value of the hedge divided by the change in value of the hedged item is within a range of 80% to 125%. Hedge ineffectiveness in a cash flow hedge occurs only if the cumulative gain or loss on the derivative hedging instrument exceeds the cumulative change in the expected future cash flows on the hedged transaction. For a derivative that does not qualify or has not been designated as a hedge, changes in fair value are recognized in earnings.
Environmental related restoration and remediation costs are recorded as liabilities when site restoration and environmental remediation and clean‑up obligations are either known or considered probable and the related costs can be reasonably estimated. Other environmental expenditures that are principally maintenance or preventative in nature are recorded when expended and incurred and are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. See “Note 19. Environmental, Health and Safety Matters.”
Foreign Currency Translation
The accounts of our operating subsidiaries outside of the U.S., unless they are operating in highly inflationary economic environments, consider the functional currency to be the currency of the economic environment in which they operate. Accordingly, assets and liabilities are translated at rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. Revenues, expenses, gains and losses are translated at a weighted average rate for the period. Cumulative translation adjustments are recorded to equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss.
If a subsidiary operates in an economic environment that is considered to be highly inflationary (100% cumulative inflation over a three-year period), the U.S. dollar is considered to be the functional currency and gains and losses from remeasurement to the U.S. dollar from the local currency are included in the statement of operations. Where a subsidiary’s operations are effectively run, managed, financed and contracted in U.S. dollars, such as certain finance subsidiaries outside of the U.S., the U.S. dollar is considered to be the functional currency.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other operating (income) expense, net in our consolidated statements of operations and were (gains) losses of $(5) million, $(2) million and $10 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. We evaluate deferred tax assets to determine whether it is more likely than not that they will be realized. Valuation allowances are reviewed on a tax jurisdiction basis to analyze whether there is sufficient positive or negative evidence to support a change in judgment about the realizability of the related deferred tax assets for each jurisdiction. These conclusions require significant judgment. In evaluating the objective evidence that historical results provide, we consider the cyclicality of businesses and cumulative income or losses during the applicable period. Cumulative losses incurred over the period limits our ability to consider other subjective evidence such as our projections for the future. Changes in expected future income in applicable jurisdictions could affect the realization of deferred tax assets in those jurisdictions.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. Tax Reform Act was signed into law. The U.S. Tax Reform Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax regime by, among other things, lowering the U.S. corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, repealing the deduction for domestic production activities and imposing a repatriation tax on deemed repatriated earnings of foreign subsidiaries.
As a result of the U.S. Tax Reform Act, the Company recorded a provisional tax benefit of $137 million due to a remeasurement of deferred tax assets and liabilities and a provisional tax expense of $85 million due to the transition tax on deemed repatriation of deferred foreign income. Absent the Venator offering and certain tax related restructuring transactions, our provisional transition tax liability on deemed repatriation of deferred foreign income would have been $12 million.
Both the tax benefit and the tax charge represent provisional amounts and our current best estimates. Any adjustments recorded to the provisional amounts through calendar year 2018 will be included in income as an adjustment to tax expense in the period of the adjustment. The provisional amounts incorporate assumptions made based upon available information and our current interpretation of the U.S. Tax Reform Act and may change as we receive additional implementation guidance and as we further refine our calculations with additional information.
Accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The application of income tax law is inherently complex. We are required to determine if an income tax position meets the criteria of more‑likely‑than‑not to be realized based on the merits of the position under tax law, in order to recognize an income tax benefit. This requires us to make significant judgments regarding the merits of income tax positions and the application of income tax law. Additionally, if a tax position meets the recognition criteria of more‑likely‑than‑not we are required to make judgments and apply assumptions to measure the amount of the tax benefits to recognize. These judgments are based on the probability of the amount of tax benefits that would be realized if the tax position was challenged by the taxing authorities. Interpretations and guidance surrounding income tax laws and regulations change over time. As a consequence, changes in assumptions and judgments can materially affect amounts recognized in our consolidated financial statements. We have not determined the need for, or change in, any unrecognized tax positions due to the U.S. Tax Reform Act. For further information concerning taxes, see “Note 17. Income Taxes.”
Intangible Assets and Goodwill
Intangible assets are stated at cost (fair value at the time of acquisition) and are amortized using the straight‑line method over the estimated useful lives or the life of the related agreement as follows:
Goodwill represents costs in excess of fair values assigned to the underlying net assets of acquired businesses. Goodwill is not subject to any method of amortization, but is tested for impairment annually (at the beginning of the third quarter) and when events and circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. When the fair value is less than the carrying value of the related reporting unit, we are required to reduce the amount of goodwill through a charge to earnings. Fair value is estimated using the market approach, as well as the income approach based on discounted cash flow projections. Goodwill has been assigned to reporting units for purposes of impairment testing. The net change to goodwill in response to changes in foreign currency exchange rates during 2017 was $3 million.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined using LIFO, first‑in first‑out, and average costs methods for different components of inventory.
We expense legal costs, including those legal costs incurred in connection with a loss contingency, as incurred.
Net Income Per Share Attributable to Huntsman Corporation
Basic income per share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net income attributable to Huntsman Corporation common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income per share reflects all potential dilutive common shares outstanding during the period and is computed by dividing net income available to Huntsman Corporation common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period increased by the number of additional shares that would have been outstanding as dilutive securities.
Basic and diluted income per share is determined using the following information (in millions):
Additional stock‑based awards of 0.8 million, 5.7 million and 6.1 million weighted average equivalent shares of stock were outstanding during the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively. However, these stock‑based awards were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share for the respective periods mentioned because the effect would be anti‑dilutive.
Other Noncurrent Assets
Other noncurrent assets consist primarily of spare parts, the overfunded portion related to defined benefit plans for employees and capitalized turnaround costs. Periodic maintenance and repairs applicable to major units of manufacturing facilities (a “turnaround”) are accounted for on the deferral basis by capitalizing the costs of the turnaround and amortizing the costs over the estimated period until the next turnaround.
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly owned and majority owned subsidiaries and any variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight‑line method over the estimated useful lives or lease term as follows:
Interest expense capitalized as part of plant and equipment was $9 million, $12 million and $14 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, respectively.
Normal maintenance and repairs of plant and equipment are charged to expense as incurred. Renewals, betterments and major repairs that materially extend the useful life of the assets are capitalized, and the assets replaced, if any, are retired.
Certain amounts in the consolidated financial statements for prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current presentation. These reclassifications were to record the assets and liabilities as held for sale and results of operations of the former P&A Business to discontinued operations. See “Note 3. Discontinued Operations and Business Dispositions—Separation of P&A Business.” In connection with the separation of the P&A Business, certain entities were removed from the debt guarantor structure. The condensed consolidating financial information included in “Note 25. Condensed Consolidating Financial Information of Huntsman International LLC” has been presented as if the new debt guarantor structure existed for all periods presented.
We generate substantially all of our revenues through sales in the open market and long‑term supply agreements. We recognize revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. Revenue for product sales is recognized when a sales arrangement exists, risk and title to the product transfer to the customer, collectability is reasonably assured and pricing is fixed or determinable. The transfer of risk and title to the product to the customer usually occurs at the time shipment is made.
Securitization of Accounts Receivable
Under our A/R Programs, we grant an undivided interest in certain of our trade receivables to the U.S. SPE and the EU SPE. This undivided interest serves as security for the issuance of debt. The A/R Programs provide for financing in both U.S. dollars and euros. The amounts outstanding under our A/R Programs are accounted for as secured borrowings. See “Note 13. Debt—Direct and Subsidiary Debt—A/R Programs.”
We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant‑date fair value of the award. That cost, net of estimated forfeitures, will be recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award. See “Note 21. Stock‑Based Compensation Plan.”
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
Accounting Pronouncements Adopted During 2017
In July 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. The amendments in this ASU do not apply to inventory that is measured using last-in first-out (“LIFO”) or the retail inventory method, but rather does apply to all other inventory, which includes inventory that is measured using first-in first-out or average cost. An entity should measure in scope inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Subsequent measurement is unchanged for inventory measured using LIFO or the retail inventory method. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective January 1, 2017, and the initial adoption of the amendment in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-16, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory. The amendments in this ASU require entities to recognize the current and deferred income taxes for an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs, as opposed to deferring the recognition of the income tax consequences until the asset has been sold to an outside party. The amendments in this ASU are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 31, 2017, including interim reporting periods within those annual reporting periods. Early adoption is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an annual reporting period for which financial statements (interim or annual) have not been issued or made available for issuance. The amendments in this ASU should be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment directly to retained earnings as of the beginning of the period of adoption. We early adopted the amendments of this ASU effective January 1, 2017 and the initial adoption of amendments in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share‑Based Payment Accounting. The amendments in this ASU simplify several aspects of the accounting for share‑based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities, and classification on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective January 1, 2017, and the initial adoption of the amendment in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017‑04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. The amendments in this ASU simplify the subsequent measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Under the amendments in this ASU, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying value, which eliminates the current requirement to calculate a goodwill impairment charge by comparing the implied fair value of goodwill with its carrying amount. The amendments in this ASU are effective for annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The amendments in this ASU should be applied on a prospective basis. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective January 1, 2017 and the initial adoption of the amendments in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption in Future Periods
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014‑09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), outlining a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenues arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015‑14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date, deferring the effective date of ASU No. 2014‑09 for all entities by one year. Further, in March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑08, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Principal versus Agent Considerations (Reporting Revenue Gross versus Net), clarifying the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations, in April 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑10, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, clarifying the implementation guidance on identifying performance obligations in a contract and determining whether an entity’s promise to grant a license provides a customer with either a right to use the entity’s intellectual property (which is satisfied at a point in time) or a right to access the entity’s intellectual property (which is satisfied over time), in May 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑12, Revenue from Customers (Topic 606): Narrow‑Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, providing clarifications and practical expedients for certain narrow aspects in Topic 606, and in December 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016‑20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The amendments in these ASUs are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. The amendments in ASU No. 2014‑09, ASU No. 2016‑08, ASU No. 2016‑10, ASU No. 2016‑12 and ASU No. 2016‑20 should be applied retrospectively, and early application is permitted. We are complete with our analysis to identify areas in our consolidated financial statements that will be impacted by the adoption of the amendments in ASU No. 2014‑09, ASU No. 2016‑08, ASU No. 2016‑10, ASU No. 2016‑12 and ASU No. 2016‑20. Other than additional required disclosures, we do not expect the adoption of the amendments in these ASUs to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements. The standard will be adopted in our fiscal year 2018, and we have elected the modified retrospective approach as the transition method.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The amendments in this ASU will increase transparency and comparability among entities by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The amendments in this ASU will require lessees to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments (the lease liability) and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early application of the amendments in this ASU is permitted for all entities. Reporting entities are required to recognize and measure leases under these amendments at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the amendments in this ASU on our consolidated financial statements and believe, based on our preliminary assessment, that we will record significant additional right-to-use assets and lease obligations.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Classification of Certain Cash Receipts and Cash Payments. The amendments in this ASU clarify and include specific guidance to address diversity in how certain cash receipts and cash payments are presented and classified in the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The amendments in this ASU should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016‑18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash. The amendments in this ASU require that a statement of cash flows explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and amounts generally described as restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. Therefore, amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents should be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning‑of‑period and end‑of‑period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim period within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The amendments in this ASU should be applied using a retrospective transition method to each period presented. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017‑01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. The amendments in this ASU clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively on or after the effective date. No disclosures are required at transition. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation—Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. The amendments in this ASU require that an employer report the service cost component of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost in the same line items as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period. The other components of net benefit cost are required to be presented in the income statement separately from the service cost component and outside of income from operations. The amendments in this ASU also allow only the service cost component to be eligible for capitalization when applicable (for example, as a cost of internally manufactured inventory or a self-constructed asset). The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The amendments in this ASU should be applied retrospectively for the presentation of the service cost component and the other components of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost in the income statement and prospectively, on and after the effective date, for the capitalization of the service cost component of net periodic pension cost and net periodic postretirement benefit cost in assets. The amendments in this ASU will impact the presentation of our consolidated financial statements. Our current presentation of service cost components is consistent with the amendments in this ASU. Upon adoption of the amendments in this ASU, we expect to present the other components within other nonoperating income, whereas we currently present these within cost of goods sold and selling, general and administrative expenses.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017‑12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities. The amendments in this ASU better align an entity’s risk management activities and financial reporting for hedging relationships through changes to both the designation and measurement guidance for qualifying hedging relationships as well as the recognition and presentation of the effects of the hedging instrument and the hedged item in the financial statements to increase the understandability of the results of an entity’s intended hedging strategies. The amendments in this ASU also include certain targeted improvements to ease the application of current guidance related to the assessment of hedge effectiveness. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early application is permitted in any interim period after the issuance of this ASU. Transition requirements and elections should be applied to hedging relationships existing on the date of adoption. For cash flow and net investment hedges, an entity should apply a cumulative-effect adjustment related to eliminating the separate measurement of ineffectiveness, and the amended presentation and disclosure guidance is required only prospectively. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef