SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
ASSET RETIREMENT OBLIGATIONS
We accrue for asset retirement obligations, which consist primarily of landfill capping, closure and post-closure costs, asbestos abatement costs, demolition and removal costs and leasehold remediation costs, in the period in which the obligations are incurred. Asset retirement obligations are accrued at estimated fair value. When the liability is initially recorded, we capitalize the cost by increasing the carrying amount of the related long-lived asset. Over time, the liability is accreted to its estimated settlement value and the capitalized cost is depreciated over the useful life of the related asset. Upon settlement of the liability, we will recognize a gain or loss for any difference between the settlement amount and the liability recorded.
CARRYING VALUE OF LONG-LIVED ASSETS
We review long-lived assets and all amortizable intangible assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of these assets may not be recoverable. Recoverability is based upon current and anticipated undiscounted cash flows, and we recognize an impairment when such estimated cash flows are less than the carrying value of the asset. Measurement of the amount of impairment, if any, is based upon the difference between carrying value and fair value. Fair value is generally estimated by discounting estimated future cash flows using a discount rate commensurate with the risks involved or selling price of assets held for sale. See "Note 11. Restructuring, Impairment and Plant Closing Costs."
CASH AND CASH EQUIVALENTS
We consider cash in checking accounts and cash in short-term highly liquid investments with remaining maturities of three months or less at the date of purchase, to be cash and cash equivalents. Cash flows from discontinued operations are not presented separately in our consolidated statements of cash flows.
COST OF GOODS SOLD
We classify the costs of manufacturing and distributing our products as cost of goods sold. Manufacturing costs include variable costs, primarily raw materials and energy, and fixed expenses directly associated with production. Manufacturing costs also include, among other things, plant site operating costs and overhead (including depreciation), production planning and logistics costs, repair and maintenance costs, plant site purchasing costs, and engineering and technical support costs. Distribution, freight and warehousing costs are also included in cost of goods sold.
DERIVATIVES AND HEDGING ACTIVITIES
All derivatives, whether designated in hedging relationships or not, are recorded on our balance sheet at fair value. If the derivative is designated as a fair value hedge, the changes in the fair value of the derivative and the hedged items are recognized in earnings. If the derivative is designated as a cash flow hedge, changes in the fair value of the derivative are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss, to the extent effective, and will be recognized in the income statement when the hedged item affects earnings. Changes in the fair value of the hedge in the net investment of certain international operations are recorded in other comprehensive income (loss), to the extent effective. The effectiveness of a cash flow hedging relationship is established at the inception of the hedge, and after inception we perform effectiveness assessments at least every three months. A derivative designated as a cash flow hedge is determined to be effective if the change in value of the hedge divided by the change in value of the hedged item is within a range of 80% to 125%. Hedge ineffectiveness in a cash flow hedge occurs only if the cumulative gain or loss on the derivative hedging instrument exceeds the cumulative change in the expected future cash flows on the hedged transaction. For a derivative that does not qualify or has not been designated as a hedge, changes in fair value are recognized in earnings.
Environmental related restoration and remediation costs are recorded as liabilities when site restoration and environmental remediation and clean-up obligations are either known or considered probable and the related costs can be reasonably estimated. Other environmental expenditures that are principally maintenance or preventative in nature are recorded when expended and incurred and are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. See "Note 20. Environmental, Health and Safety Matters."
FOREIGN CURRENCY TRANSLATION
The accounts of our operating subsidiaries outside of the U.S., unless they are operating in highly inflationary economic environments, consider the functional currency to be the currency of the economic environment in which they operate. Accordingly, assets and liabilities are translated at rates prevailing at the balance sheet date. Revenues, expenses, gains and losses are translated at a weighted average rate for the period. Cumulative translation adjustments are recorded to equity as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss.
If a subsidiary operates in an economic environment that is considered to be highly inflationary (100% cumulative inflation over a three-year period), the U.S. dollar is considered to be the functional currency and gains and losses from remeasurement to the U.S. dollar from the local currency are included in the statement of operations. Where a subsidiary's operations are effectively run, managed, financed and contracted in U.S. dollars, such as certain finance subsidiaries outside of the U.S., the U.S. dollar is considered to be the functional currency.
Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded in other operating (income) expense in our consolidated statements of operations and were net losses of $7 million, $15 million and $11 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Deferred income taxes reflect the net tax effects of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial and tax reporting purposes. We evaluate deferred tax assets to determine whether it is more likely than not that they will be realized. Valuation allowances are reviewed on a tax jurisdiction basis to analyze whether there is sufficient positive or negative evidence to support a change in judgment about the realizability of the related deferred tax assets for each jurisdiction. These conclusions require significant judgment. In evaluating the objective evidence that historical results provide, we consider the cyclicality of businesses and cumulative income or losses during the applicable period. Cumulative losses incurred over the period limits our ability to consider other subjective evidence such as our projections for the future. Changes in expected future income in applicable jurisdictions could affect the realization of deferred tax assets in those jurisdictions.
We do not provide for income taxes or benefits on the undistributed earnings of our non-U.S. subsidiaries that are reinvested and, in the opinion of management, will continue to be reinvested indefinitely.
Accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The application of income tax law is inherently complex. We are required to determine if an income tax position meets the criteria of more-likely-than-not to be realized based on the merits of the position under tax law, in order to recognize an income tax benefit. This requires us to make significant judgments regarding the merits of income tax positions and the application of income tax law. Additionally, if a tax position meets the recognition criteria of more-likely-than-not we are required to make judgments and apply assumptions to measure the amount of the tax benefits to recognize. These judgments are based on the probability of the amount of tax benefits that would be realized if the tax position was challenged by the taxing authorities. Interpretations and guidance surrounding income tax laws and regulations change over time. As a consequence, changes in assumptions and judgments can materially affect amounts recognized in our consolidated financial statements.
INTANGIBLE ASSETS AND GOODWILL
Intangible assets are stated at cost (fair value at the time of acquisition) and are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives or the life of the related agreement as follows:
Goodwill represents costs in excess of fair values assigned to the underlying net assets of acquired businesses. Goodwill is not subject to any method of amortization, but is tested for impairment annually (at the beginning of the third quarter) and when events and circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. When the fair value is less than the carrying value of the related reporting unit, we are required to reduce the amount of goodwill through a charge to earnings. Fair value is estimated using the market approach, as well as the income approach based on discounted cash flow projections. Goodwill has been assigned to reporting units for purposes of impairment testing. The net change to goodwill in response to changes in foreign currency exchange rates during 2015 was $6 million.
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or market, with cost determined using LIFO, first-in first-out, and average costs methods for different components of inventory.
We expense legal costs, including those legal costs incurred in connection with a loss contingency, as incurred.
NET INCOME PER SHARE ATTRIBUTABLE TO HUNTSMAN CORPORATION
Basic income per share excludes dilution and is computed by dividing net income attributable to Huntsman Corporation common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Diluted income per share reflects all potential dilutive common shares outstanding during the period and is computed by dividing net income available to Huntsman Corporation common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period increased by the number of additional shares that would have been outstanding as dilutive securities.
Basic and diluted income per share is determined using the following information (in millions):
Additional stock-based awards of 6.1 million, 1.0 million and 7.3 million weighted average equivalent shares of stock were outstanding during the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. However, these stock-based awards were not included in the computation of diluted earnings per share for the respective periods mentioned because the effect would be anti-dilutive.
OTHER NONCURRENT ASSETS
Other noncurrent assets consist primarily of spare parts, the overfunded portion related to defined benefit plans for employees and capitalized turnaround costs.
PRINCIPLES OF CONSOLIDATION
Our consolidated financial statements include the accounts of our wholly owned and majority owned subsidiaries and any variable interest entities for which we are the primary beneficiary. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
PROPERTY, PLANT AND EQUIPMENT
Property, plant and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives or lease term as follows:
Interest expense capitalized as part of plant and equipment was $22 million, $16 million and $7 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.
Periodic maintenance and repairs applicable to major units of manufacturing facilities (a "turnaround") are accounted for on the deferral basis by capitalizing the costs of the turnaround and amortizing the costs over the estimated period until the next turnaround. Normal maintenance and repairs of plant and equipment are charged to expense as incurred. Renewals, betterments and major repairs that materially extend the useful life of the assets are capitalized, and the assets replaced, if any, are retired.
Certain amounts in the consolidated financial statements for prior periods have been reclassified to conform with the current presentation. Effective October 1, 2015, we retroactively applied, and information in this report reflects, the presentation and disclosure requirements of ASU No. 2015-03, Interest—Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. See "—Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements."
We generate substantially all of our revenues through sales in the open market and long-term supply agreements. We recognize revenue when it is realized or realizable and earned. Revenue for product sales is recognized when a sales arrangement exists, risk and title to the product transfer to the customer, collectability is reasonably assured and pricing is fixed or determinable. The transfer of risk and title to the product to the customer usually occurs at the time shipment is made.
SECURITIZATION OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Under our A/R Programs, we grant an undivided interest in certain of our trade receivables to the U.S. SPE and the EU SPE. This undivided interest serves as security for the issuance of debt. The A/R Programs provide for financing in both U.S. dollars and euros. The amounts outstanding under our A/R Programs are accounted for as secured borrowings. See "Note 14. Debt—Direct and Subsidiary Debt—A/R Programs."
We measure the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost will be recognized over the period during which the employee is required to provide services in exchange for the award. See "Note 22. Stock-Based Compensation Plan."
USE OF ESTIMATES
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
RECENTLY ISSUED ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS
Accounting Pronouncements Adopted During 2015
In April 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU No. 2014-08, Presentation of Financial Statements (Topic 205) and Property, Plant, and Equipment (Topic 360): Reporting Discontinued Operations and Disclosures of Disposals of Components of an Entity, changing the criteria for reporting discontinued operations and enhancing reporting requirements for discontinued operations. A disposal of a component of an entity or a group of components of an entity will be required to be reported in discontinued operations if the disposal represents a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on an entity's operations and financial results. Further, the amendments in this ASU will require an entity to present, for each comparative period, the assets and liabilities of a disposal group that includes a discontinued operation separately in the asset and liability sections, respectively, of the statement of financial position. The amendments in this ASU are effective prospectively for all disposals (or classifications as held for sale) of components of an entity that occur within annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within those years, and for all businesses that, on acquisition, are classified as held for sale that occur within annual periods beginning on or after December 15, 2014, and interim periods within those years. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective January 1, 2015, and the initial adoption of the amendments in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-03, Interest—Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs. The amendments in this ASU require that debt issuance costs related to a recognized debt liability be presented in the balance sheet as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of that debt liability, consistent with debt discounts, and that amortization of debt issuance costs shall be reported as interest expense. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by the amendments in this ASU. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015, with early application permitted. Entities would apply the new guidance retrospectively to all prior periods. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective October 1, 2015 and have presented debt issuance costs as a direct deduction from the carrying amount of debt in our consolidated financial statements retrospectively to all prior periods. Debt issuance costs were previously presented as other noncurrent assets in our consolidated financial statements.
In September 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-16, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments. The amendments in this ASU require that an acquirer recognize adjustments to provisional amounts that are identified during the measurement period in the current reporting period in which the adjustment amounts are determined and calculated as if the accounting had been completed at the acquisition date. The amendments in this ASU also require an entity to present separately on the face of the income statement or disclose in the notes the portion of the amount recorded in current-period earnings by line item that would have been recorded in previous reporting periods if the adjustment to the provisional amounts had been recognized as of the acquisition date. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively to adjustments to provisional amounts that occur after the effective date of this ASU with earlier application permitted for financial statements that have not been issued. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective October 1, 2015, and the initial adoption of the amendments in this ASU did not have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. The amendments in this ASU require that deferred tax liabilities and assets be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The amendments in this ASU are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Earlier application is permitted for all entities as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. The amendments in this ASU may be applied either prospectively to all deferred tax liabilities and assets or retrospectively to all periods presented. We adopted the amendments in this ASU effective October 1, 2015 and have classified, on a prospective basis, all deferred tax liabilities and assets as noncurrent on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Pronouncements Pending Adoption in Future Periods
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), outlining a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenues arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance. In August 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606): Deferral of the Effective Date, deferring the effective date of ASU No. 2014-09 for all entities by one year. The amendments in these ASUs are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. The amendments in ASU No. 2014-09 should be applied retrospectively, and early application is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of the adoption of the amendments in ASU No. 2014-09 on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, providing guidance about management's responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an entity's ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related footnote disclosures. The amendments in this ASU are effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-01, Income Statement—Extraordinary and Unusual Items (Subtopic 225-20): Simplifying Income Statement Presentation by Eliminating the Concept of Extraordinary Items, eliminating from US GAAP the concept of extraordinary items. Reporting entities will no longer have to assess whether a particular event or transaction event is extraordinary. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. A reporting entity may apply the amendments prospectively or may also apply them retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements. Early adoption is permitted provided that the guidance is applied from the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis. The amendments in this ASU change the analysis that a reporting entity must perform to determine whether it should consolidate certain types of legal entities by placing more emphasis on risk of loss when determining a controlling financial interest. These amendments affect areas specific to limited partnerships and similar legal entities, evaluating fees paid to a decision maker or service provider as a variable interest, the effects of both fee arrangements and related parties on the primary beneficiary determination and certain investment funds. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. A reporting entity may apply the amendments retrospectively or using a modified retrospective approach. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period provided that any adjustments should be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-05, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement. The amendments in this ASU provide guidance that will help entities evaluate the accounting for fees paid by a customer in a cloud computing arrangement, including whether a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license. If a cloud computing arrangement includes a software license, then the customer should account for the software license consistent with the acquisition of other software licenses; otherwise, the customer should account for the arrangement as a service contract. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Entities can elect to adopt the amendments either prospectively to all arrangements entered into after the effective date or retrospectively to all prior periods. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-11, Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory. The amendments in this ASU do not apply to inventory that is measured using last-in, first-out (LIFO) or the retail inventory method, but rather does apply to all other inventory, which includes inventory that is measured using first-in, first-out (FIFO) or average cost. An entity should measure in scope inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value. Net realizable value is the estimated selling prices in the ordinary course of business, less reasonably predictable costs of completion, disposal, and transportation. Subsequent measurement is unchanged for inventory measured using LIFO or the retail inventory method. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively with earlier application permitted as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. The amendments in this ASU require equity investments (except those accounted for under the equity method of accounting or those that result in consolidation of the investee) to be measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in net income. The amendments allow equity investments that do not have readily determinable fair values to be remeasured at fair value either upon the occurrence of an observable price change or upon identification of an impairment. The amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the amendments in the ASU is not permitted. An entity should apply the amendments by means of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the balance sheet as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The amendments related to equity securities without readily determinable fair values (including disclosure requirements) should be applied prospectively to equity investments that exist as of the date of adoption. We do not expect the adoption of the amendments in this ASU to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
This element may be used to describe all the significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. It also discloses any change in the method of applying an accounting principle, or any change in an accounting principle required by a new pronouncement in the unusual instance that a new pronouncement does not include specific transition provisions.
No definition available.